NEC PC-8201A BASIC Command Reference

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NEC PC-8201A                               N82-BASIC
                                           PART 2
This file is part of a multiple file set of tech ref
information for the NEC PC-8201A laptop computer.

PART 1: Intro to N82 BASIC
PART 2: Keywords AND through XOR
Compiled by:     David Firth
                 Westerville, Ohio
If you find misspellings, errors, or omissions,
please bring them to my attention and they will
be corrected.

PART 2 Revision history:

v1.00      07/04/1998    Initial compilation
v1.01      07/16/1998    Angle brackets to square
                         brackets because of html

Key:   This reference uses abbreviations and symbols
       from the N82 BASIC Reference, (c)1983 by NEC
       Home Electronics. Angle brackets have been
       changed to square brackets during html

       [variable]     Items enclosed in triangle
       [numeric]      brackets are to be replaced in
       [string]       programs by the appropriate
       [file]         variables, etc. that you're
       [device]       using.

       {}             Items inside curly brackets
                      are optional.

       ()             Parentheses are part of the
                      BASIC code and must be included.

                      Spaces in commands are always
                      optional except for spaces
                      in strings between double quotes.

Commands are BASIC keywords that do not return values.

Functions are BASIC keywords that return values. Functions
are often used in variable assignment, as shown in the use
guidelines. However, functions are often used within other
commands without an intermediate variable assignment.

Logical operators are functions that operate on one or two
integer operands.

Program control commands are used for looping, calling.



Type:    Logical Operator
Use:     [operand] AND [operand]

The AND operator converts both operands to 16-bit signed
integers and then performs a logical AND between each bit
in the two numbers. Bit 0 of operand 1 and operand 2 are
ANDed to get bit 0 of the result, and so forth. The truth
table for AND is:

A  B   R

0  0   0
0  1   0
1  0   0
1  1   1


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = ASC([string])

ASC returns the ASCII code associated with the first
character of a string variable.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = ATN([numeric])

ATN returns the trigonometric arctangent of an angle.
The angle must be in radians. The result is in the range
-pi/2 to pi/2 radians.


Type:    Command
Use:     BEEP

This command is equivalent to printing the ASCII BEL
character, CHR$(7). It sounds the speaker for approx 0.12


Type:    Command
Use:     BLOAD"{[device]:}[file]"

BLOAD is a binary load command that loads machine code
programs. The file name of the resulting program will
have a .CO extension. [device] defaults to the cassette
port if no other device is specified. The starting address
of the program is embedded in the .CO file (see BSAVE).


Type:    Command
Use:     BLOAD?"{[device]:}[file]"

BLOAD? verifies that the machine code program in memory
(may have been previously loaded with BLOAD) matches the
program in the storage device. A response of "Ok" means
the programs match. A response of "BAD" means the programs
do not match.


Type:     Command
Use:      BSAVE"{[device]:}[file]",[start],[length]

BSAVE is a binary save command that stores machine code
programs, copying a block of memory to a storage device.
The file name of the resulting program will have a .CO
extension. [device] defaults to the cassette port if no
other device is specified. The starting address of the
program is embedded in the .CO file, and the user may
specify a different execution address than starting


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = CDBL([numeric])

Converts a numeric value or expression to a double
precision real number.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string variable] = CHR$([numeric])

CHR$ returns a character corresponding to the ASCII
character having a particular numeric value.


Type:    Function
Use:     [integer variable] = CINT([numeric])

Converts a numeric value or expression to an integer
value, -32768 to 32767.


Type:    Command
Use:     CLEAR {[string area size]}{,[ramtop]}

CLEAR performs several important memory management tasks.
When no parameters are specified, CLEAR causes variable
initialization within BASIC. When the string area size is
given, BASIC adjusts the working space size for string
variables (since this space is not avail for BASIC
programs, only as much string space as required should
be used). When ramtop is specified, the top of memory
available to BASIC is artificially limited. This is useful
for machine code programming, where the block of memory
between ramtop and the system data area may be used safely
for machine code.


Type:    Command
Use:     CLOAD "[file]"

Loads a program from cassette.


Type:    Command
Use:     CLOAD? "[file]"

CLOAD? verifies that the program in memory (may have
been previously loaded with CLOAD) matches the program
in the storage device. A response of "Ok" means the
programs match. A response of "BAD" means the programs
do not match.


Type:    Command
Use:     CLOSE {{#}[file number]}{,{#}[file number]} ...

CLOSE writes out data in the file buffer and ends possible
file i/o to designated files. If no file numbers are
specified, all files are closed.


Type:    Command
Use:     CLS

Clears the LCD screen. If function key display is enabled,
function key labels will remain displayed.


Type:    Command
Use:     COM ON
         COM OFF
         COM STOP

Enables and disables processing of communications (RS232).
COM ON sets up BASIC's interrupt service routine. COM OFF
and COM STOP keep BASIC from processing incoming


Type:    Command
Use:     CONT

Continues program execution at the place of the halt if
no program modifications have been made.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = COS([numeric])

COS returns the trigonometric cosine of an angle. The
angle must be in radians.


Type:    Command
Use:     CSAVE "[file]"

Saves a program to cassette.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = CSRLIN

Returns the current line number of the cursor, 0 through
6 or 7 (depending on whether function key labels are
enabled). 0 is the top line.


Type:    Command
Use:     DATA [constant] {,[constant]} ...

DATA holds a series of constants in memory for later
retrieval via READ commands. Multiple DATA statements may
appear in a single program. Constants may be numeric or
string data types (strings appear in data statements
without quotes).


Type:    Command or Function
Use:     DATE$ = "[year]/[month]/[day]"
         [string variable] = DATE$

When used as a command, DATE$ sets the system clock to a
particular date (time is changed separately with TIME$).

When used as a function, DATE$ returns the current date
setting of the system clock as a string.


Type:    Command
Use:     DEFINT [character range]
         DEFSNG [character range]
         DEFDBL [character range]
         DEFSTR [character range]

Defines ranges of variable names as particular data types.
Using these commands at the beginning of a program can
speed execution, since BASIC then knows exactly how to
treat a variable based upon the name. Variable names not
DEFined are assumed to be single precision real numbers.
Ranges can be specified as single letters separated by
commas, or letter ranges (two single letters separated
by a hyphen).


Type:    Command
Use:     DIM [variable name] ([max size]{,[max size]}...)

Allocates memory for arrays. Arrays not DIMensioned are
limited to 10 elements.


Type:    Command
Use:     EDIT {[line to begin edit]}{-[line to end edit]}

Envokes the system TEXT editor for the whole program (no
line numbers specified) or selected lines.


Type:    Command
Use:     END

Terminates the program, closes files, and returns BASIC
to direct mode.


Type:    Function
Use:     EOF([file number])

EOF returns true if the file pointer for the current file
is currently at the end of the file, the point at which
no more records may be read. This function is most commonly
used in an IF statement. It must be placed in the program's
loop structure at the beginning of the loop (called a
DOWHILE configuration). Numerically, true is anything not
equal to 0 and false=0.


Type:    Logical Operator
Use:     [variable] = [numeric] EQV [numeric]

The EQV operator converts both operands to 16-bit signed
integers and then performs a logical EQV between each bit
in the two numbers. Bit 0 of operand 1 and operand 2 are
EQVed to get bit 0 of the result, and so forth. The truth
table for EQV is:

A  B   R

0  0   1
0  1   0
1  0   0
1  1   1


Type:    Function
Use:     ERL

ERL returns the line number where an error occurred. In
direct mode, ERL returns 65535.


Type:    Function
Use:     ERR

ERR returns the error code of the last error detected by


Type:     Command
Use:      ERROR [byte]

ERROR simulates an error with ERR code [byte]. The code
must be in the range 0 to 255.


Type:    Command
Use:     EXEC [start address]

EXEC transfers computer control to a machine code routine
stored at the start address. Data may be transferred to the
machine code routine in one of three registers by POKEing
values into one of the following locations. Similarly,
values may be returned from the machine code routine by
PEEKing the following locations.

A = 63911
H = 63913
L = 63912

Control is returned to BASIC via a RET instruction.


Type:    Function
Use:     EXP([numeric expression])

Returns the value of e (2.71828) raised to the value of
the specified numeric expression. The maximum power
allowed is approximately 87.


Type:    Command
Use:     FILES

FILES displays the files available in RAM. Files with
.BA extensions are BASIC programs. Files with .DO
extensions are text files, and files with .CO extensions
are machine code programs. A BASIC file marked with a
star (*) is the currently loaded BASIC program.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = FIX([numeric])

FIX returns the integer portion of a real number.


Type:    Loop control structure
Use:     FOR [variable] = [initial] TO [final]
           {STEP [increment]}
         NEXT {[variable]} {,[variable]} ...

The FOR..NEXT loop structure is the only predefined
formal loop structure in N82 BASIC. It declares a variable
as a counter, sets an initial value, and executes the code
between the FOR statement and the NEXT statement once per
loop cycle. At the end of each cycle, BASIC increments the
counter by 1 (default) or by a STEP value. When the
counter]final, the loop stops and execution continues
with the statement following the NEXT statement.

The variable after NEXT may be omitted. BASIC will assign
NEXT to the last variable used in a FOR statement.
Multiple variables may be NEXTed by listing them with
commas between each variable. The innermost loop counter
should be first.

If the STEP increment is 0, the loop will be infinite. If
the STEP increment is negative, the loop will count down
(initial must be ] final).

If the initial condition is untrue (a positive STEP
increment with initial]final for example), BASIC will not
loop. The commands will be executed once as if they were
normal commands with no FOR..NEXT loop.


Type:    Function
Use:     FRE([numeric])

FRE returns the amount of free memory for one of BASIC's
several memory areas. The memory area checked depends upon
the type of value represented by the given parameter. To
check the amount of program memory available, use a numeric
value, variable, or expression. To check the amount of
string memory available, use a string character or


Type:    Control
Use:     GOSUB [line number]

When BASIC encounters a GOSUB statement, it transfers
program control to the specified line number. The line
number may be implicitly stated, calculated, or contained
in a variable. Subroutines should end with RETURN. When
BASIC encounters RETURN, it transfers program control back
to the statement immediately following the calling GOSUB.
Since BASIC searches the program sequentially for the
starting line number of the subroutine, program speed may
be increased by placing subroutines at the beginning of
the program:

1    GOTO 3000
xxxx REM Subroutine 1
xxxx REM Subroutine 2
3000 REM Begin main program
xxxx END


Type:    Control
Use:     GOTO [line number]
         GO TO [line number]

GOTO transfers program control to a line number. The line
number may be implicitly stated, calculated, or contained
in a variable.

A much maligned control command, GOTO has borne the brunt
of programmer whining for several decades. Programmer
perfectly happy with JMP commands in assembler language
hypocritically denounce GOTO. However, GOTO is an important
command in N82 BASIC. By using GOTO, the programmer can build
DO..WHILE and REPEAT..UNTIL style structures.


Type:    Control
Use:     IF [expression] THEN [clause] {ELSE [clause]}
         IF [expression] GOTO [clause] {ELSE [clause]}

IF..THEN statements allow decision making within a program.
BASIC evaluates the expression to see if it is true; if so,
program control transfers to the statement(s) or the line
number in the THEN clause. If the expression is false,
program control transfers to the line number or statement
in the optional ELSE clause.


    [expression]    may be    [arithmetic expression] OR
                              [logical expression] OR
                              [relational expression]

    [then clause]   may be    [statement] OR
                              [multiple statement] OR
                              [line number]

    [goto clause]   may be    [line number]

    [else clause]   may be    [statement]
                              [line number]

When IF..THEN..ELSE statements ar nested, an ELSE will
refer back to the most recently executed IF statement.


Type:    Logical operator
Use:     [operand] IMP [operand]

IMP returns a false value only when the first operand is
true and the second operand is false.

A  B   R

0  0   1
0  1   1
1  0   0
1  1   1


Type:    Function
Use:     [string variable] = INKEY$

INKEY$ returns the character value of a key pressed by the
user. If no key is currently pressed, the function returns
a null string. INKEY$ is usually called in a loop.


Type:    Function
Use:     [byte] = INP([byte])

INP returns the value of the byte at a particular hardware
input port.


Type:    Function
Use:     INPUT {"[prompt]";}[variable]{,[variable}...

INPUT returns values or strings from the user via the
keyboard. An optional prompt string may be displayed.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string variable] = INPUT$([integer]{,{#}
                                    [file number]} )

INPUT$ returns a character string of a specified length
from either the keyboard (no file number specified) or a
RAM file.


Type:    Function
Use:     INPUT# [file number],[variable] {,[variable]...}

INPUT# returns the values for the specified variables
from a RAM file.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = INSTR( {[numeric],} [string],

INSTR returns the position of the [substring] within the
[string]. The optional [numeric] is a starting position
from which to begin the search.


Type:    Function
Use:     [numeric] = INT([numeric])

INT returns the integer portion of a real number.


Type:    Command
Use:     KEY [key number],[string]

KEY sets the command assigned to a function key.


Type:    Command
Use:     KILL "[file name]"

Erases a file. N82 BASIC is case sensitive for file
names, and the name must include the extension.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = LEFT$([string],[numeric])

LEFT$ returns the first [numeric] characters of the


Type:    Function
Use:     [varable] = LEN([string])

LEN returns the length of the string.


Type:    Command
Use:     {LET} [variable] = [expression]

Assigns a value to a variable. LET is an unusual command,
since the keyword LET is optional. To save memory, most
programmers omit the keyword. The keyword is allowed for
compatibility with other Microsoft BASICs.


Type:    Command
Use:     LINE INPUT {"[prompt]";} [string variable]

Allows input of up to a 255 character string. An optional
prompt string may be displayed.


Type:    Command
Use:     LIST {[start line]} {,[end line]}
         LLIST {[start line]} {,[end line]}

Lists program line(s) to screen (LIST) or printer (LLIST).
If no line numbers are specified, BASIC lists the entire


Type:    Command
Use:     LOAD " {[device]:} [file name] " {,R}

Loads a .BA or a .DO file from a device. Standrd devices
are CAS, RAM, and COM. For .BA programs, the optional
",R" instructs BASIC to run the program immediately after

Aftermarket DOS programs may add a device for the disk


Type:    Command
Use:     LOCATE [x],[y]

Places cursor at a specific x,y coordinate in text mode.
Valid x values are 0-39. Valid y values are 0-6 (fkeys on)
or 0-7 (fkeys off).


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = LOG([numeric])

Returns the natural logarithm (base e) of a number.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = LPOS( [dummy numeric] )

Returns the position of the "print head" within the
printer buffer. The dummy numeric must be specified.
For simplicity, use 0.


Type:    Command
Use:     MAXFILES = [numeric]

Sets the maximum number of files that may be open in


Type:    Command
Use:     MENU

Exits BASIC.


Type:    Command
Use:     MERGE " {[device]:} [file name] "

MERGEs a program from RAM or an external device with the
program currently in BASIC. The lines in the program being
read into BASIC have precedence if BASIC finds identical
line numbers.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string] = MID$([string],[first]{,[num chars]})

MID$ returns a specified number of characters from any
position within a string. When [num chars] is omitted,
MID$ returns all characters from [position] through the
end of the string.


Type:    Logical operator
Use:     [variable] = [operand] MOD [operand]

MOD returns the integer remainder of a divide of two
integers. The second operand may not be 0.


Type:    Command
Use:     MOTOR [integer]

MOTOR turns on and off the cassette port relay. MOTOR 0
opens the relay contacts (off) and MOTOR 1 through MOTOR
255 close the relay contacts (on).


Type:    Command
Use:     NAME "[file name]" AS "[new file name]"

Renames a file in RAM.


Type:    Command
Use:     NEW

Closes all open files and clears the program from BASIC's
working memory. No RAM files are erased, including the RAM
file copy of any program that was open in BASIC when the
user issues the command.


Type:    Logical operator
Use:     [variable] = NOT [operand]

NOT inverts the bits in the operand. 0 becomes 1 and 1
becomes 0.


Type:    Program control
Use:     ON [expression] GOTO [line] {,[line]} ...
         ON [expression] GOSUB [line] {,[line]} ...

Transfers control to a calculated line number specified in
the command. The integer portion of the numeric expression
determines which of the listed line numbers BASIC transfers
control to. If INT([expression])=1, then BASIC uses the
first line number. If 2, the second, etc.


Type:    Program control
Use:     ON COM GOSUB [line]

If COM ON is true, then BASIC calls the subroutine at
[line] when a character appears at the serial port.


Type:    Program control
Use:     ON ERROR GOTO [line]

Transfers control to a particular [line] when BASIC
encounters a trappable error condition. If [line] = 0
then BASIC removes the error trap routine. See RESUME.


Type:    Command
Use:     OPEN " {[device]:} [file name] " FOR
           [input/output/append] AS {#} [file number]

OPENs a sequential file in BASIC for INPUT, OUTPUT, or
APPEND mode. The file number is a byte used in subsequent
file commands instead of the file name. The number of open
files cannot exceed the MAXFILES setting.


Type:    Command
Use:     OPEN "COM: [stat]" FOR [input/output] AS
           {#} [file number]

Sets the communication parameters of the serial port and
assigns a file number and mode for serial communications.

[stat] is a configuration string for the serial port, made
up of six single character codes in the form [CPBSXI]:

C = Comm baud rate      1 = 75     6 = 2400
                        2 = 110    7 = 4800
                        3 = 300    8 = 9600
                        4 = 600    9 = 19200
                        5 = 1200

P = Parity              N = no     I = ignore
                        E = even   O = odd

B = Data bits           6, 7, 8

S = Stop bits           1, 2

X = xon/xoff            X = use xon/xoff    N = no

I = shift in/out        S = use shift in    N = no
                            and out ctrl


Type:    Logical operator
Use:     [variable] = [operand] OR [operand]

The OR operator converts both operands to 16-bit signed
integers and then performs a logical OR between each bit
in the two numbers. Bit 0 of operand 1 and operand 2 are
ANDed to get bit 0 of the result, and so forth. The truth
table for OR is:

A  B   R

0  0   0
0  1   1
1  0   1
1  1   1


Type:    Command
Use:     OUT [port],[byte]

OUT writes the value of a data byte to the i/o port at


Type:    Function
Use:     PEEK ( [address] )

PEEK returns the value of a data byte stored at a RAM


Type:    Command
Use:     POKE [address],[data]

POKE stores the value of a data byte at a RAM [address].


Type:    Function
Use:     POS ( [dummy expression] )

POS returns the current cursor position, column 0-39. The
[dummy expression] doesn't matter. Use 0.


Type:    Command
Use:     POWER [timer]
         POWER OFF
         POWER CONT

POWER performs two functions: shuts down the computer via
program/user command or sets up the automatic power system.
[timer] is a number from 10 through 255. Assume about 6
per second, so 6 = 1 second and 12 = 2 seconds, etc.

CONT means "continuous" power. In this mode the PC-8201A
will not power off automatically.

OFF shuts off the machine immediately.


Type:    Command
Use:     PRESET ( [horiz],[vert] {,[function]} )

PRESET resets the dot at position [horiz],[vert]. [horiz]
must be in the range 0-239 and [vert] must be in the
range 0-63.

[function] is an unusual parameter. It must be in the range
0-255. If odd, the function does nothing. If even, BASIC
makes PRESET work like PSET.


Type:    Command
Use:     PRINT {"} { [expression] ... } {"}
         LPRINT {"} { [expression] ... } {"}

PRINT outputs expressions to the screen. PRINT by itself
outputs an empty line. Literal strings must be enclosed
in the "optional" double quotes.

Expressions must be separated by either a comma (,) or a
semicolon (;). A comma places spaces between the
parameters. A semicolon between parameters places the
two in the output stream with no separation.

LPRINT is identical except that the output goes to
the printer port instead of the LCD.


Type:    Command
Use:     PRINT USING [formatting string];
                     [numeric expression]
         LPRINT USING [formatting string];
                      [numeric expression]

Formatted output command using a special formatting string
string. This is one of the most often misunderstood
commands. After learning the formatting codes, the
formatted output in newer versions of Microsoft Windows
products won't look so odd!

The formatting code is a string of characters, each
character representing a symbol to include or how to
display a digit. In general, there is one symbol for each
digit that you wish to display and additional symbols for
the decimal point, dollar signs, negative sign, etc. The
number of symbols for the place values sets the fixed
point precision for the displayed value.

If insufficient digits are given for the mantissa, BASIC
displays the value with a trailing % sign.

Symbols:   #    Displays one digit. If the numeric value
                doesn't fill all the # symbols, BASIC
                displays the value with leading spaces.

           .    Decimal point. Sets location of the
                radix. Only one decimal point may be
                specified. A second "decimal point" is
                used by BASIC to end one field and start
                another, useful in some multiple variable

          ,     Comma. May be placed in the code string
                anywhere after the first # and before the
                decimal point. Tells BASIC to punctuate
                the result with a comma every 3 digits
                to separate hundreds from thousands, etc.

         +      Leading sign. Place at the beginning or
                at the end of the code string to tell
                BASIC to use leading sign indicators.
                This is a default.

         -      Trailing sign. Place at the end of the
                code string to specify trailing negative
                signs for negative numbers. Useful for
                sending data files to some mainframe apps
                that require trailing signs.

        ^       Exponent. Place four of them at the end of
                the code string to specify using E+xx
                notation (one for each space required).

        **      Double asterisk. Place at the beginning of
                the code string to tell BASIC to use
                leading asterisks.

N82 BASIC does not support the following symbols valid in
other versions of Microsoft BASIC: 0 (leading 0), $$
(double dollar sign for floating $), [[[[ (exponential),
! (exclamation, print only 1st char), %% or \\ (used to
include a string of spaces).


Type:    Command
Use:     PSET ( [horiz],[vert] {,[function]} )

PSET sets the dot at position [horiz],[vert]. [horiz]
must be in the range 0-239 and [vert] must be in the
range 0-63.

[function] is an unusual parameter. It must be in the range
0-255. If even, the function does nothing. If odd, BASIC
makes PSET work like PRESET.


Type:    Command
Use:     READ [variable list]

READ is used with DATA to include data values into a
program. READ gets the next avail DATA value and
assigns the variable that value.


Type:    Comment
Use:     REM [comment]
         '   [comment]

All text in a line from REM forward to the end of the line
will be ignored by BASIC during execution. REM may be
abbreviated by using an apostrophe (').


Type:    Command
Use:     RENUM {[new line #]} {,[old line #]} {,[step]}

RENUMbers the BASIC program. If no line numbers of step
value is given, BASIC renumbers, outputting a program
whose first line is 10 using a step of 10 between each
line. RENUM is smart enough to renumber GOTO, GOSUB,

RENUM will not resequence lines. Line numbers may not be
greater than 65529.


Type:    Command
Use:     RESTORE {[line number]}

Resets the data pointer for READ/DATA. If a line number
is given, the next READ will read from the first DATA
item on the specified line. If [line number] is
omitted, READ will read from the first DATA statement
in the program.


Type:    Command
Use:     RESUME {[0]}
         RESUME [NEXT]
         RESUME [line number]

Used to resume program execution after an error. There
are three forms:

RESUME or RESUME 0 causes BASIC to resume where the error
occurred.  RESUME NEXT causes BASIC to resume with the
statement immediately following where the error occurred.
RESUME [line number] causes BASIC to resume at the
specified line number.


Type:    Program control
Use:     RETURN {[line number]}

RETURN is usually used with no parameter to return control
to the statement immediately after a calling GOSUB or
interrupt routine.

The optional line number overrides BASIC's normal return
sequence and transfers control to the specified line

The difference between a RETURN [line number] and a GOTO
at the end of a subroutine call (neither is a very good
way to transfer program control) is that the RETURN [line
number] removes the normal return address from the stack.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string] = RIGHT$ ([string],[numeric])

RIGHT$ returns the rightmost [numeric] characters of the
source string.


Type:    Function
Use:     [numeric] = RND ([seed])

RND calculates a random number between 0 and 1 given a
numeric seed value. The method used for all Microsoft
BASICs this author can find documented is linear
congruence, a well documented algorithm that yields
good results from little code overhead.

The [seed] can take three forms:

RND ([negative number])      Causes BASIC to start a
                             new RND sequence using
                             the specified seed.

RND ([positive number])      Causes BASIC to return
                             the next random number
                             in the current sequence.

RND (0)                      Returns the last result.

The user may gain good results by calulating the number
of seconds since midnight (some Microsoft BASICs do this
via the TIMER function), making it negative, and using
this number as the seed. The seed should be negative
for the first RND call and positive thereafter.


Type:    Command
Use:     RUN {[line number]}
         RUN " {[device]:} [file name] " {,R}

RUNs the current or specified program from the beginning
or from the specified line number.

According to the N82 BASIC manual, the optional {,R}
parameter will open all data files. The usefulness of
this trick escapes me.


Type:    Command
Use:     SAVE " {[device]:} [file name] " {,A}

SAVEs the current program in BASIC to the specified file
name. If the file name is a duplicate, the file in
BASIC overwrites the file in RAM.

If the file name ends in .BA or does not have an extension
BASIC will save it as a tokenized BASIC (.BA) program. If
the given extension is .DO or the optional {,A} parameter
is given, BASIC saves the program as an ASCII file
suitable for upload/download via TELCOM.

A program may not be saved twice with the same file name
without BASIC generating a "?FC Error".


Type:    Command
Use:     SCREEN {[dummy]},[fkey switch]

Sets the screen mode as 8 lines without displayed function
keys or 7 lines with displayed function keys. A function
key switch of 0 means 8 line mode. Non-zero means 7 line

Note that the comma before the fkey switch is required,
though the numeric dummy (usually 0) is not required.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = SGN ([numeric])

Returns a 1 is the number is positive, 0 if the number
is 0, and -1 if the number is negative.


Type:    Function
Use:     SIN ([numeric])

SIN returns the trigonometric sine of an angle. The angle
must be in radians.


Type:    Command
Use:     SOUND [tone],[length]

Produces a sound of specified tone and length from the
piezoelectric speaker. The length is in the range 0-255,
with each unit being 0.02 seconds.

The tone is in the range 0-16383, and may be taken from
the following chart:

OCTAVE:   1      2      3      4      5      6

C         -      9394   4697   2348   1171   587
C#        -      8866   4433   2216   1103   554
D         -      8368   4184   2092   1045   523
D#        15800  7900   3950   1975   987    493
E         14912  7456   3728   1864   932    466
F         14064  7032   3516   1758   879    439
F#        13284  6642   3321   1660   830    415
G         12538  6269   3134   1567   783    -
G#        11836  5918   2954   1479   733    -
A         11172  5586   2793   1396   693    -
A#        10544  5272   2636   1316   653    -
B         9952   4968   2486   1244   622    -

According to the N82 BASIC manual, 5586 = 440 Hz.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string] = SPACE$ ([numeric])

Returns a string of spaces equal to the integer portion
of the [numeric]. [numeric] must be in the range 0-250.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = SQR ([positive numeric])

Returns the square root of [positive numeric].


Type:    Command
Use:     STOP

Halts the running BASIC program and returns to direct
mode without closing the program file like END. If the
program is not altered by the user while STOPped, the
program may be continued with CONT. While STOPped, the
user may examine variables. Useful for debugging.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string] = STR$ ([numeric])

Converts the [numeric] to its string representation.


Type:    Function
Use:     [string] = STRING$ ([numeric],"[character]")
         [string] = STRING$ ([numeric],[ASCII code])

Returns a string of specified length made up of the
repeated specified character. [numeric] must be in the
range 0-250.


Type:    Function
Use:     TAB ([numeric])

Used within PRINT and LPRINT for formatting text. Inserts
a series of spaces to take the output stream to the
position specified by [numeric]. The position in the
putput stream is left to right, so TAB statements in
a single PRINT/LPRINT to the right of another TAB where
the second [numeric] is less than the first [numeric]
are ignored.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = TAN ([numeric])

TAN returns the trigonometric tangent of an angle. The
angle must be in radians.


Type:    Command or Function
Use:     TIME$ = "[hour]:[min]:[sec]"
         [string variable] = TIME$

When used as a command, TIME$ sets the system clock to a
particular time (date is changed separately with DATE$).

When used as a function, TIME$ returns the current time
setting of the system clock as a string.


Type:    Function
Use:     [variable] = VAL ([numeric string])

Returns the numeric value of the string. The string must
be the string representation of a valid number, otherwise
VAL returns 0. The symbols plus (+), minus (-), the
decimal point (.), and the digits 0-9 are valid characters.

VAL processes the [numeric string] left to right until
either (1) the end of the string or (2) the first
non-numeric character.


Type:    Logical operator
Use:     [variable] = [operand] XOR [operand]

The XOR operator converts both operands to 16-bit signed
integers and then performs a logical XOR between each bit
in the two numbers. Bit 0 of operand 1 and operand 2 are
XORed to get bit 0 of the result, and so forth. The truth
table for XOR is:

A  B   R

0  0   0
0  1   1
1  0   1
1  1   0


Original author of this page: David Firth.

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